Psychological sexuality is a complex subject that requires a comprehensive understanding of the topic. Understanding sexuality requires lifelong pursuit of accurate information, critical evaluation of sources, and appreciation of human sexuality.
A fundamental concept in sexuality is sexual attraction, or a person’s attraction to other people. Various methods of research are used to measure and predict sexual attraction within populations. These include predetermined questions, genetic influence, and evolutionary perspectives.
Psychosexual neutrality-at-birth theory
Psychosexual neutrality-at-birth theory is supported by clinical, anthropological, and multidisciplinary evidence. It suggests that man’s sexual behaviors do not follow an instinctive sex pattern. However, it is not without counter-evidence. The theory’s strongest support comes from clinical material.
Psychosexual differentiation is dependent on two different processes. One is a genetic process, and the other is a process of socialization. Both approaches acknowledge the influence of androgenic hormones, but they are viewed as supporting the neutrality theory.
Androgens are a group of chemical compounds that affect the erotic functioning and sexual desire of both sexes. The difference between males and females is that they respond to androgens in different ways.
Another way to test the validity of the psychological neutrality-at-birth theory is through the use of twin studies. One study, by Kallmann in 1952, found that identical and fraternal twins had a 99.5% concordance for homosexuality.
However, there was only a five percent concordance in dizygotic twins. This finding was not replicated in other studies, which suggests that the results are not conclusive. However, the study did involve institutionalised twins.
Human sexuality is a highly controversial issue. Many scientists believe that the development of sexuality is the result of genetic inheritance, while others disagree.
Many others believe that it is the result of psychological factors. However, no matter what side of the debate you are on, it is important to understand that both sides have valid points to make.
An evolutionary perspective views psychological characteristics as traits that have been acquired over time, by undergoing the natural selection process. Such traits are necessary for the survival and improvement of the human race.
As such, evolutionary psychology views psychological characteristics from a biological, psychological, and cognitive standpoint. It also looks at the development of human consciousness, language, perception, and memory.
According to an evolutionary perspective, sexual behavior is adaptive, since it facilitates reproduction and survival. However, because the primary reinforcers for this behavior are not identical, the evolutionist account suggests that they are differentially rewarding.
This means that the benefits of sexuality are dependent upon an organism’s reproductive status, age, and sex.
Evolutionary perspectives on psychological sexuality are helpful supplemental texts for evolutionary scientists from various fields.
This first volume of the series includes twenty chapters, divided into two sections: Male Sexual Adaptations, and Female Sexual Adaptations. This book will appeal to all evolutionary scientists, regardless of their discipline.
Evolution has designed men and women to have sex for reproductive purposes. Both genders engage in sex for a variety of reasons. They engage in it to attract others, to feel pleasure, or to manipulate others. Other reasons include mate selection, or ‘I missed you.’
The primary function of psychological sexuality is bonding, and it serves as a secondary reinforcer linking partner affiliation and sexual behaviors. However, there are some researchers who believe that the primary mechanism is sire selection. Good genes and good social partners often overlap.
In addition to the social bonding involved, sexual pleasure has also been shown to be a reinforcement mechanism. In most other sexually reproducing species, males use orgasm to encourage sex behavior. The evolution of orgasm in humans may be related to bonding.
Learning processes in psychological sexuality refers to the study of human sexual behavior. The author describes healthy and problematic sexual behaviors and shows how the feelings of guilt and shame contribute to these behaviors.
The study of psychological sexuality has led to many new insights into the psychology of sexuality. It has also demonstrated that some behaviors previously thought to be problematic are actually quite common.
The study used a large sample of U.S. fourteen to seventeen-year-olds to study learning processes related to four topics. In a series of online surveys, they assessed what adolescents learned from formal and informal sources.
These sources included television, movies, and peers. The study also compared gender and race differences in learning processes. They also performed factor analysis and regression analyses to analyze associations between different sources and learning outcomes.
Social context is a major influence on sexual relationships. People in the sexual field are motivated by erotic desires and assess other actors according to their status in the hierarchy.
These values have implications for how they are evaluated and their opportunities for intimacy. The economic structure of a society is also a major influence on sexuality.
Children and adolescents learn about sex through their peers. This is often termed as “observational learning” or “behavioral modeling”. If adolescents perceive that their actions will reward them, they will be more likely to replicate this behavior.
Therefore, learning about sexuality can contribute to the development of social skills and improve self-esteem.
In addition to understanding the different forms of intimate relationships, psychologists study the psychological factors related to these relationships. This includes marital and non-marital relationships, family dynamics, and domestic violence.
They also study the physiological basis of human behavior. In particular, learning processes in psychological sexuality can also impact the quality of intimate relationships.
Recent studies have revealed that genetics can have a profound effect on psychological sexuality. However, other scientists are doubtful of these findings. One of these scientists, Qazi Rahman of the King’s College London, says that the findings are based on biased data.
She points out that the data sets were biased towards people who revealed their sexuality. These individuals may have been considered to be risky, and this may reflect in their genetic data.
While we are born with the neurophysiology necessary for a normal sexual response cycle, there are genetic differences in the intensity of our sexual responses. This difference may be related to our basic “sex drive.”
Some people need frequent sexual expression, while others need little or no sexual expression. This genetic basis of sexual differences may be masked by the effects of conditioning and social environment.
Genetics may influence psychological sexuality, but it is not a dominant factor. In fact, studies have found that the majority of differences between individuals are caused by social and psychological factors.
Even so, there is little genetic evidence that could meaningfully predict sexual behavior. Moreover, genetics can only account for a small fraction of the variance in the development of same-sex sexuality.
The study of homosexuality has also revealed that FBOE increases the probability of homosexuality. If a man has three or four older brothers, his likelihood of developing a homosexual orientation can double.
However, FBOE does not account for homosexuality in first-born males. It also does not explain the discordance in sexual orientation in male MZ twin pairs that have multiple older brothers.
In addition to psychological traits, genetics plays a large role in intellectual ability, social attitudes, and preferences. Studies have indicated that between forty to fifty percent of these traits are influenced by genetics.
The findings of genetics and psychology may be the key to finding new treatments for diseases like ADHD and schizophrenia.